Can any user edit a Google Sheet?
If you make your Google Sheet publicly accessible with edit capabilities, any user with a link can view it. But only users logged in to a Google Account can edit it.
Can I restrict some data from public Google Sheets?
You can make a Google Sheet public, and yet restrict access to some ranges or sheets. You can do it under Data > Protect Sheets and ranges.
Can I check which users have viewed a Google Sheet?
You can use the activity dashboard to see which users have viewed and edit your Google Sheet. You can access it in the top right corner, next to the sharing options. If you don’t want to display the activity history, you can change it in the privacy settings.